Hammurabi, Babylonian king (c. 1792 BC - 1750 BC)

Ikhenathon (Akhenaton), Egyptian king of Egypt and religious reformer (c. 1375 BC - 1358 BC)

Solomon, king of the ancient Hebrews and son of David (died c. 930 BC)

Lycurgus, Spartan semi-mythical law-giver (fl. c. 850 BC)

Hesiod, Greek pastoral poet (c. 800 BC - c. 720 BC)

Homer ("Smyrns of Chios"), Greek poet (fl. 750 BC or earlier)

Aristodemus, Messenian semi-legendary ruler of Messenia (reigned c. 731 BC - 724 BC)

Archilochus, Greek poet and satirist (c. 680 BC or 700 BC)

Periander of Corinth, Greek tyrant, one of Seven Sages (665? BC - 585 BC)

Pittacus of Mitylene, Greek one of Seven Sages, statesman, philosopher and poet (c. 652 BC - 569 BC)

Thales of Miletus, Greek one of Seven Sages, philosopher, astronomer and geometer (c. 640 BC - 546 BC)

Solon, Athenian one of Seven Sages, lawgiver (c. 638 BC - 559 BC)

Cleobulus of Lindos, Rhodes one of Seven Sages (633 BC - 564 BC)

Alcaeus, Greek lyric poet (fl. c. 600 BC)

Anacharsis, Scythian philosopher (fl. 600 BC)

Sappho, Greek lyric poet (fl. c. 600 BC)

Zoroaster, Persian philosopher and religious leader (c. 628 BC - c. 551 BC)

Aesop, Greek fabulist and author (c. 620 BC - c. 560 BC)

Anaximander, Greek physical philosopher and mathematician (c. 611 BC - 547 BC)

Lao-Tzu (Lao-Tsze or Laosi)("The Venerable Philosopher"), Chinese philosopher (c. 604 BC - c. 531 BC)

Croesus, Lydian wealthy king (590? BC - after 525 BC)

Phocylides, Greek gnomic poet (fl. 560 BC)

Mimnermus, Greek elegiac poet (fl. 630 BC - 600 BC)

Pythagoras, Greek mathematician and philosopher (582 BC - 497 BC)

Ariphon the Sicyonian, Greek poet (c. 550 BC)

Artabanus I, Persian prince (fl. c. 550 BC)

Theano, Greek wife of Pythagoras (c. 550 BC)

Xenophanes, Greek philosopher and poet (c. 576 BC - 480 BC)

Chilo of Sparta (Chilon), Greek one of Seven Sages (6th century BC)

Myson, Greek philosopher (c. 600 BC)

Theognis of Megara, Greek elegiac poet (570? BC - 490? BC)

Lucius Tarquin, Roman legendary king (6th century BC)

Anacreon, Greek amatory lyric poet (c. 563 BC - 478 BC)

Buddha, Indian religious leader (563 BC - 483 BC)

Simonides of Ceos, Greek lyric poet (556 BC - 467 BC)

Confucius, Chinese philosopher (c. 551 BC - 478 BC)

Hecato (Hecataeus), Greek historian and geographer (c. 550 BC - 476 BC)

Epicharmus, Dorian comic poet and Pythagorean philosopher (540? BC - 450 BC)

Heraclitus of Ephesus, Greek philosopher (c. 540 BC - c. 480 BC)

Bias of Priene, Greek one of Seven sages (c. 566 BC)

Sun Tzu (Sunzi), Chinese military strategist (c. 500 BC)

Aeschylus, Greek tragic poet (525 BC - 456 BC)

Menennius Agripa (Lanatus), Roman patrician and senator (fl. 493 BC)

Pindar, Greek chief lyric poet (c. 522 BC - 433 BC)

Xerxes I, the Great, Persian king (486-465) (519? BC - 465 BC)

Pausanias, Spartan general (fl. 479 BC)

Themistocles, Athenian statesman and commander (514? BC - 449 BC)

Aristides ("The Just"), Greek general and statesman (fl. 480 BC)

Cleonice, Greek maiden killed by Pausanius (c. 476 BC)

Anaxagoras, Greek philosopher and scientist (c. 500 BC - c. 428 BC)

Crates, Greek actor and dramatist (fl. c. 470 BC)

Sophocles, Greek tragic poet (c. 496 BC - 406 BC)

Pericles, Greek statesman (495 BC - 429 BC)

Protagoras, Greek sophist and philosopher (490? BC - 420? BC)

Euripides, Greek tragic poet (485 BC - 406 BC)

Herodotus ("Father of History"), Greek historian (c. 484 BC - c. 409 BC)

Leontinus Gorgias, Greek sophist and rhetorician (483 BC - 375 BC)

Agis II, Greek king of Sparta (fl. 450 BC)

Antiphon, Greek orator (480 BC - 411 BC)

Hippias, Greek sophist (fl. 450 BC)

Ion, Greek poet and dramatist (fl. 450 BC)

Parmenides, Greek Eleatic philosopher (fl. 450 BC)

Dionysius of Chalcus, Greek poet and orator (fl. c. 444 BC)

Thucydides, Greek historian (c. 471 BC - c. 400 BC)

Choerilus of Samos, Greek tragic dramatist (c. 470 BC - 399 BC)

Lamachus, Athenian general (c. 470 BC - 414 BC)

Socrates, Greek philosopher (c. 470 BC - 399 BC)

Democritus, Greek philosopher (460 BC - 370 BC)

Hippocrates of Iphicrates, Island of Cos physician and writer, Father of Medicine (460 BC - 377 BC)

Agesilaus, the Great, Greek king of Sparta (455 BC - 361 BC)

Empedocles, Greek poet, physicist and philosopher (455? BC - 395 BC)

Agathon, Greek tragic poet (c. 448 BC - 400 BC)

Aristophanes, Greek poet and satirist (c. 448 BC - c. 380 BC)

Eupolis, Greek poet (c. 446 BC - 411 BC)

Antisthenes, Greek philosopher and founder of Cynic school (444 BC - c. 371 BC)

Isocrates, Athenian orator (436 BC - 338 BC)

Lysander, Greek general and statesman (- 395 BC)

Alcidamus, Greek rhetorician (c. 432 BC - 411 BC)

Dionysius the Elder, Syracusan tyrant (c. 431 BC - 367 BC)

Archytas of Tarentum, Greek general, mathematician and philosopher (fl. 400 BC)

Cratinus, the Younger, Greek comic poet (fl. 400 BC)

Dionysius of Heraclea, Italian Stoic philosopher (fl. 400 BC)

Xenophon, Greek general, historian and essayist (c. 430 BC - after 357 BC)

Plato, Greek philosopher (c. 427 BC - 347 BC)

Aristippus, Greek philosopher and founder of the Cyrenaic school (425? BC - 366? BC)

Brennus, Celtic leader of the Senonian Gauls (fl. 390 BC)

Iphicrates, Athenian general (419 BC - 348 BC)

Diogenes ("The Cynic"), Greek philosopher (412 BC - 323 BC)

Anaxandrides, Greek comic poet (fl. 370 BC)

Phocion, Athenian general and patriot (402? BC - 317 BC)

Scopas, Greek sculptor and architect (400 BC - 320 BC)

Antipater, Macedonian general and statesman (398? BC - 319 BC)

Xenocrates, Greek philosopher (396 BC - 314 BC)

Dionysius the Younger, Syracusan tyrant (c. 367 BC - 356 BC)

Antiphanes of Macedonia, Greek comic poet (fl. 360 BC)

Aeschines, Greek statesman and orator (389 BC - 314 BC)

Aristotle, Greek philosopher (384 BC - 322 BC)

Antigonus I ("The Cyclops") (Antigonius), Phrygian ruler and one of Alexander's generals (382? BC - 301 BC)

Demosthenes, Greek orator and statesman (382 BC - 322 BC)

Philip of Macedon, Macedonian king, father of Alexander the Great (382 BC - 336 BC)

Archidamus III, Greek king of Sparta (fl. 350 BC)

Demades, Greek orator and politician (fl. 350 BC)

Phryne, Athenian courtesan (fl. 350 BC)

Tachos, Egyptian king (c. 350 BC)

Demodocus, Greek epigrammatist (4th century BC)

Tacros, Egyptian king (c. 350 BC)

Pyrrho, Greek philosopher and skeptic (c. 376 BC - 270 BC)

Mencius, Chinese philosopher (371 BC - 289 BC)

Parmenio, Macedonian general under Alexander (fl. 335 BC)

Theodorus of Cyrene, Greek philosopher (fl. 340 BC)

Chuang Tzu (Zhuangzi), Chinese philosopher (369 BC - 286 BC)

Philemon, Greek poet of new comedy (360? BC - 262? BC)

Pytheas, Greek mariner of Marseilles (c. 330 BC)

Alexander, the Great, Macedonian general and ruler (356 BC - 323 BC)

Apelles, Greek painter (fl. 325 BC)

Cercidas of Crete, Greek epigrammatist (c. 325 BC)

Appius Caecus Claudius ("The Censor"), Roman censor, dictator and poet, started building of Appian Way (fl. 312 BC)

Epicurus, Greek philosopher (341 BC - 271 BC)

Menander, Greek dramatic poet (c. 341 BC - c. 293 BC)

Qu Yuan, Chinese poet and patriot (340 BC - 278 BC)

Chrysis, Greek dramatist (c. 300 BC)

Hieronymus (1), Syracusan Greek historian (c. 300 BC)

Lady Ho, Chinese poet (c. 300 BC)

Stilpo, Greek philosopher (c. 300 BC)

Bion of Smyrna, Greek popular philosopher and poet (c. 325 BC - c. 255 BC)

Euclid, Greek geometer (c. 323 BC - 283 BC)

Posidippus (Poseidippos), Greek comic poet (fl. 289 BC)

Pyrrhus, Epirus king (318? BC - 272 BC)

Appius Claudius Caecus, Roman orator (c. 312 BC - 278 BC)

Hedylus, Greek epigrammatist (c. 280 BC)

Zenodotus, Greek grammarian and critic (fl. 280 BC)

Theophrastus, Greek philosopher (- 278 BC)

Leonidas of Tarentum, Greek poet (c. 275 BC)

Aratus, Greek poet and astronomer (fl. 300 BC - 250 BC)

Archestratus, Greek naturalistic poet (fl. 330 BC)

Bidpai (Pilpay), Brahmin gymnosophist (several cent. before Christ)

Cleanthes, Greek Stoic philosopher (c. 300 BC - 220 BC)

Herodas, Greek writer of mimes (fl. 270 BC)

Pilpay (Bidpai), Brahmin gymnosophist (several cent. before Christ)

Telesphorus of Rhodes, Greek philosopher (fl. 300 BC)

Theocritus, Greek pastoral poet (fl. 270 BC)

Xunsi, Chinese sage (298 BC - 238 BC)

Apollonius Rhodius, Greek (Alexandrian-born) rhetorician, scholar and epic poet (c. 295 BC - 215 BC)

Callimachus, Greek poet and grammarian (c. 260 BC)

Archimedes, Syracusan (Sicilian) geometrician (287 BC - 212 BC)

Chrisippus, Greek Stoic philosopher (280 BC - 207 BC)

Epaminondas, Greek statesman (fl. 250 BC)

Hanfeizi, Chinese philosopher (280 BC - 233 BC)

Modestus, Roman general (fl. 250 BC)

Nicaenetus, Greek epigrammatic poet (c. 250 BC)

Lacydes, Greek philosopher (fl. c. 241 BC)

Hamilcar Barca, Carthaginian general and father of Hannibal (- 229 BC)

Gnaeus Naevius, Latin playwright (c. 265 BC - 204 BC)

Apollonius of Perga ("The Great Geometer"), Greek epigrammatic poet and mathematician (c. 262 BC - c. 190 BC)

The First Emperor of Qin, Chinese unifier (259 BC - 210 BC)

Plautus (Titus Maccius Plautus), Roman dramatist (254 BC - 184 BC)

Patanjali, Indian sage who wrote the "Yoga Sutras" (between 4th and 1st century BC)

Hannibal, Carthaginian general and son of Hamilcar Barca (247 BC - 183 BC)

Paulus Aemilius, Roman consul and general (fl. c. 216 BC)

Fabius (Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus) (Cunctator), Roman general and statesman (- 203 BC)

Quintus Ennius, Calabrian Roman epic poet (c. 239 BC - 169 BC)

Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major, Roman general and consul (237? BC - 183? BC)

Maharbal, Carthaginian cavalry commander and lieutenant of Hannibal, son of Himilco (236 BC - 165 BC)

Cato (Marcus Porcius Cato "The Elder") (a/k/a Cato the Censor), Italian patriot and statesman (234 BC - 149 BC)

Mochus (Moschus), Greek pastoral poet (fl. 200 BC)

Marcus Pacuvius, Italian Roman tragic poet (c. 220 BC - 129 BC)

Perses, Macedonian king (fl. 179 BC)

Polybius, Greek historian (204 BC - 125 BC)

Aulus Licinius Archias, Greek poet and epigrammatist (c. 199 BC -)

Caecilius Statius, Latin poet and dramatist ( - 168 BC)

Metrodorus, Greek philosopher (fl. 168 BC)

Terence (Publius Terentius Afer), Roman (Carthagian-born) comic poet (c. 185 BC - 159 BC)

Nicander, Greek physician, grammarian and poet (fl. c. 150 BC)

Ben Sira (Syra), Jewish sage, scribe, scholar and aphorist ("Wisdom of Ben Sira") (2nd century BC)

Lucius Accius, Roman tragic poet (170 BC - 90 BC)

Caius Sempronius Gracchus, Roman statesman and orator (159? BC - 121 BC)

Gaius Marius, Roman dictator and general (155 BC - 85 BC)

Jugurtha, Numidian king (154? BC - 104 BC)

Antipater of Sidon, Phoenician epigrammatist (fl. c. 150 BC - 127 BC)

Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullian, Carthaginian ecclesiastic (c. 150 - 230 BC)

Caius Lucilius, Roman satiric poet (148 BC - 103 BC)

Quintus Caecilius Metellus (Macedonius), Roman general (- 115 BC)

Sima Qian, Chinese Grand Historian of the Han Dynasty (145 BC - 86 BC)

Gaius Memmius, Roman jurist (fl. 110 BC)

Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Roman general and dictator (138 BC - 78 BC)

Posidonius, Greek Stoic philosopher (c. 135 BC - 51 BC)

Gaius Aurelius Cotta, Roman statesman and orator (c. 124 BC - 73 BC)

Marcus Terentius Varro, Italian learned Latin author (116 BC - 27 BC)

Marcus Lucinius Crassus, Roman general and statesman (c. 115 BC - 53 BC)

Meleager, Greek poet and epigrammatist (fl. c. 80 BC)

Catiline (Lucius Sergius Catilina), Roman politician and conspirator (c. 108 BC - 62 BC)

Pompey (Cneius Pompeius), Roman general and triumvir (106 BC - 48 BC)

Cicero (Marcus Tullius Cicero), Roman philosopher, statesman and orator (106 BC - 43 BC)

Rufus Servius Sulpicius, Roman jurist and orator (106 BC - 43 BC)

Decimus Laberius, Roman knight and writer of mimes and farces (c. 105 BC - 43 BC)

Origo, Italian dramatist (fl. 75 BC)

Caius Cilnius Maecenas, Roman statesman and patron of letters (c. 73 BC)

Julius Caesar (Caius Julius Caesar), Roman general, statesman, writer and orator (100 BC - 44 BC)

Lucius Licinius Lucullus, Roman consul and epicure (100? BC - 57? BC)

Publius Nigidius Figulus, Roman savant (c. 98 BC - 45 BC)

Lucretius (Titus Lucretius Carus), Roman philosophical poet (c. 96 BC - 55 BC)

Marcus Porcius Cato ("The Younger"), Roman patriot and stoic philosopher (95 BC - 46 BC)

Catullus (Caius Quintus Valerius Catullus), Roman poet (87 BC - 45 BC)

M. Coelius Rufus, Roman orator (86 BC - 48 BC)

Sallust (Caius Sallustius Crispus), Roman historian (86 BC - 35 BC)

Marcus Junius Brutus, Roman republican leader (85 BC - 42 BC)

Caius Rabirius, Roman defended by Cicero (fl. 54 BC)

Quintus Cornificius, Latin poet (fl. 50 BC)

Sextus Aurelius Propertius, Roman (Umbria) elegiac poet (c. 50 BC)

Didacus Stella, Roman general (fl. 50 BC)

Gaius Velleius, Roman senator and Epicurean philosopher (fl. 50 BC)

Archias of Thebes, Greek man of letters (first century BC)

Crinagoras, Greek epigrammatist (fl. c. 45 BC)

Cornelius Nepos, Roman author and historian (1st century BC)

Syrus (Publilius Syrus), Roman (Syrian-born) mimographer (c. 1st century BC)

Athenodorus, Greek Stoic philosopher (c. 74 BC - 8 AD)

Theodotus, Samos rhetorician (- 43 BC)

Diodorus Siculus, Greek (Silician-born) historian (fl. c. 40 BC)

Virgil or Vergil (Publius Virgilius Maro Vergil), Roman epic, didactic and idyllic poet (70 BC - 19 BC)

Caius Cornelius Gallus, Roman poet and soldier (66? BC - 26 AD)

Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus), Roman poet (65 BC - 8 BC)

Augustus Caesar, Roman emperor (63 BC - 14 AD)

Titus Livy, Roman historian (59 BC - 17 AD)

Marcus Annaeus Seneca, Latin rhetorician, father of Lucius Annaeus Seneca (c. 54 BC - 39)

Albius Tibullus, Italian elegiac poet (c. 54 BC - 18 BC)

Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Greek rhetorician and historian (c. 50 BC - 7 BC)

Manilius (Manlius or Mallius) (Marcus or Caius), Latin poet (reign of Augustus or Tiberius)

Vitruvius Pollio, Italian architect (fl. c. 15 BC)

Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso), Roman poet (43 BC - c. 17 AD)

Tiberius (Tiberius Clauius Nero), Italian emperor of Rome (42 BC - 37 AD)

Philo-Judaeus, Jewish (Alexandria-born) philosopher (c. 20 BC -)

Phaedrus (Thrace of Macedonia), Roman poet and short story writer (15 BC - 50 AD)

Tiberius Drusus Nero Germanicus Claudius, Roman emperor (10 BC - 54 AD)

Montanus, Phrygian originator of schismatic movement in Christian church (fl. 130)

Jesus Christ, Roman religious leader (4 BC - 29 AD)

Seneca (Lucius Annaeus Seneca), Roman philosopher and moralist (4 BC - 65 AD)

Lollius Bassus, Greek poet (fl. 20) Arria, Roman wife of Caecina Paetus (fl. 40)

Lucinus Junius Moderatus Columella, Roman (Spanish-born) writer on agriculture (fl. c. 40)

Gaius Scribonius Curio, Roman statesman and orator ( - 53)

Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus), Italian emperor of Rome (9 - 79)

Caius Caesar Caligula, Roman emperor (12 - 41)

Automedon, Greek epigrammatist (c. 50)

Aulus Vitellius, Roman emperor (15 - 69)

Pliny the Elder (Caius Plinius Secundus), Roman naturalist (23 - 79)

Titus Caius Silius Italicus, Roman poet and politician (25 - 101)

Valerius Maximus, Roman historian (c. 1st century)

Petronius (Caius Petronius Arbiter), Roman writer (died c. 66)

Dion (Dio) Chrysostom, Greek sophist and rhetorician (30? - 117?)

Pedanius Dioscorides, Greek physician (1st century)

Nicarchus, Greek epigrammatic poet (first century?)

Persius (Aulus Persius Flaccus), Etrurian satirical poet (34 - 62)

Julius (Claudius) Civilus, Roman commander (fl. c. 70)

Rufus Musonius, Roman Stoic philosopher (fl. 70)

Quintilian (Marcus Fabius Quintilianus), Roman rhetorician and critic (c. 35 - 95)

Flavius Josephus, Jewish historian (37 - 96?)

Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus Nero, Roman emperor, profligate and tyrant (37 - 68)

Lucanus (Marcus Annaeus Lucan), Roman (Spanish-born) last of Roman epic poets (fl. 39 - 65)

Cynewulf (Cynwulf), Anglo-Saxon poet (fl. 750)

Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus Titus, Roman emperor who conquered Jerusalem (40 - 81)

Martial (Marcus Valerius Martialis), Spanish epigrammatic poet (c. 43 - 104)

Plutarch, Greek philosopher and biographer (c. 46 - 120)

Galgacus (Calgagus), Caledonian chieftain defeated by Agricola (fl. 84)

Pope Clement I (Clemens Romanus), bishop of Rome, supposed St. Paul's fellow laborer (died c. 100)

Epictetus, Greek (Phrygian) philosopher (55 - 135)

Tacitus (Caius Cornelius Tacitus), Roman historian (c. 55 - 117)

Juvenal (Decimus Junius Juvenal), Roman satirical poet (c. 60 - 140)

Nicomachus of Gerasa, Greek mathematician (c. 60 - c. 120)

Statius (Publius Papanius Statius), Roman poet (c. 60 - 100)

Pliny the Younger (Caius Caecilius Secundus), Roman author and orator (c. 62 - 113)

Philippus of Thessalonica, epigrammatic poet (fl. 100)

Caius Tranquillus Suetonius, Roman historian (born c. 69 - after 122)

Hadrian (Adrian), Aelius Publius Hadrianus Aelius, Roman emperor (76 - 138)

Favorinus, Latin rhetorician and sophist (fl. c. 125)

Lucius Annaeus Florus, Roman historian (fl. 125)

Flavius Arrianus (used pseudonyms Arrian and Appian a/k/a Ptolemy), Greek governor of Cappadocia and historian (fl. c. 130)

Siddha Nagarjuna, Indian-Tibetan religious leader (c. 100 - 200)

Demonaz, Greek Cynic philosopher (fl. 150)

Dorion, Greek writer (c. 150)

Aelius Aristides (2), Bithynian sophist and rhetorician (c. 117 - 187)

Aulus Gellius, Roman writer (c. 117 - c. 180)

Zenobius (Zenodatus), Greek sophist and collector of proverbs (117 - 138)

Lucian, Greek (Samosata) satirist (c. 120 - 180)

Gallus Lucian, Greek writer (c. 120 -)

Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus), Roman emperor, philosopher and author (121 - 180)

Quintus Sertorius, Roman military commander (121? BC - 72 BC)